Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said a reported chemical attack in Syria was staged by foreign agents.
The US and France have said they have proof it took place, and, alongside the UK, they are considering launching military retaliation against Syria.
Russia, a Syrian ally, has warned the US that air strikes risk a new war.
Independent chemical weapons inspectors are en route to the Eastern Ghouta area to look for evidence. They are expected to arrive on Saturday.
During a press briefing on Friday, Mr Lavrov said he had "irrefutable evidence" that the attack was staged as part of a "Russophobic campaign" led by one country, which he did not name.
Russia has requested a United Nations meeting in New York later in the day, but this has not yet been confirmed.
The White House says it is continuing to assess intelligence and talk to its allies on how to respond.
The delegation from the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) will start its investigations on Saturday, but, to ensure their safety, few details are expected to be released about their movements.
The call for action comes after a suspected chemical attack on the rebel-held town of Douma in the Eastern Ghouta on Saturday, which killed dozens of people, according to opposition activists, rescue workers and medics.
Chemical weapons attacks are suspected to have taken place in Syria before. Last year, the US launched a retaliatory strike after one was said to have taken place in Khan Sheikhoun.
President Bashar al-Assad's government – which receives military backing from Russia – has denied involvement in any chemical attack, calling the reports "fabricated".
After six weeks of heavy fighting and an estimated 1,700 civilian deaths in the Eastern Ghouta region, the Syrian government is now said to have control of the area, which lies just outside Damascus.
The final evacuations of about 4,000 remaining Islamist fighters and civilians continued on Friday, according to the UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring organisation.